Ancient Egyptian Music | The World’s Oldest Music Traditions

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When we think of ancient Egypt, we often picture magnificent pyramids, pharaohs, and hieroglyphics. But what about music? Despite the many visual representations of music in Egyptian art, music is often overlooked in discussions of ancient Egypt. Yet, music played an essential role in Egyptian society and was an integral part of their religious and cultural practices.

In this article, we’ll take a deep dive into the world of ancient Egyptian music. We’ll explore the types of instruments they used, the music they played, and the role it played in their daily lives. We’ll also look at how the Egyptians recorded and preserved their music and what we can learn about their music from these recordings.

The Origins of Ancient Egyptian Music

Music has been a part of human culture since the dawn of time, and ancient Egypt was no exception. The earliest evidence of music in ancient Egypt dates back to the pre-dynastic period (c. 6000-3150 BCE), where depictions of musicians playing various instruments can be found in rock art.

As Egypt evolved and developed, so did its music. By the time of the Old Kingdom (c. 2686-2181 BCE), music had become an integral part of Egyptian culture. Musicians played at religious ceremonies, funerals, and banquets, and music was often used to accompany dancing and other forms of entertainment.

Types of Ancient Egyptian Instruments

The ancient Egyptians used a wide range of instruments, many of which are still in use today. These instruments can be divided into four main categories: percussion, wind, string, and voice.

Percussion instruments were the most common, with the Egyptians using various types of drums, rattles, and tambourines. Wind instruments, such as flutes and reed pipes, were also popular, while string instruments, such as harps and lyres, were reserved for the wealthy and elite.

The Egyptians also had a rich vocal tradition, with singers often accompanied by instrumentalists. In fact, some of the oldest surviving examples of musical notation are actually vocal compositions.

The Role of Music in Ancient Egyptian Society

Music played a vital role in ancient Egyptian society, both in religious and secular contexts. In religious ceremonies, music was used to create a mystical atmosphere and was believed to have the power to connect humans with the gods.

In secular contexts, music was used to entertain and bring people together. Banquets and parties were often accompanied by music, and dancers would perform to the beat of the drum.

Recording and Preserving Ancient Egyptian Music

Despite its importance, little of ancient Egyptian music has survived to the present day. However, we do have some evidence of their music, mainly in the form of inscriptions and tomb paintings that depict musicians playing various instruments.

In addition, some musical instruments have been found in tombs, and a few examples of musical notation have been discovered. These notations, which were often written in hieroglyphics, provide us with a glimpse into the music of ancient Egypt and give us an idea of what their music might have sounded like.


The music of ancient Egypt is a fascinating and often overlooked aspect of their culture. From the wide variety of instruments they used to the role music played in their society, it’s clear that music was an essential part of their daily lives. While much of their music has been lost to time, the surviving examples provide us with a unique insight into one of the world’s oldest music traditions.

Whether you’re a music lover or simply fascinated by ancient history, there’s something to be gained from exploring the music of ancient Egypt. It’s a testament to the creativity, ingenuity, and skill of one of the world’s earliest civilizations, and it continues to influence music and culture to this day. By learning about ancient Egyptian music, we can gain a deeper appreciation for the incredible achievements of this remarkable civilization, and the enduring legacy they have left behind.

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